In 2012 Statistics Canada cancelled its long established University and College Academic Staff Survey (UCASS) due to budget cuts imposed by the federal government. Equivalent salary data is now being collected voluntarily by the National Faculty Data Pool (NFDP) based at Western University. The NFDP uses the same survey questionnaire as employed by the UCASS and maintains the same protections for data privacy.
However, readers should note that, because institutional reporting is now voluntary, many of the smaller institutions have so far declined to participate in the survey. This means that longitudinal data on a provincial and national level will no longer be comparable to historic UCASS data.
2.1 Average and Median Salaries of Full-time Canadian University Teachers by Sex and Rank, 2016-2017
Average and median salaries for full-time university teachers increased by 3.5% between the 2013-2014 and 2016-2017 academic years.
This table reports average salaries for full-time university teachers by sex, rank and institution.
This table reports the proportion of male and female university teachers in each age cohort by sex and subject taught for 2016-2017.
As mandatory retirement laws have been rescinded in a number of provinces in recent years, the proportion of full-time university teachers in Canada employed as teachers beyond the common retirement age of 65 has increased sharply. In 2016-2017, 12.4% of male and 4.6% of female full-time university teachers in Canada were over the age of 65.
Female university teachers have made significant progress in attaining tenured and tenure track appointments over the past two decades. In 2016-2017, 37% of full-time female university teachers in Canada held tenured university positions, while 49% of full-time female university teachers were in tenure track positions.
In 2016-2017, females accounted for 39.5% of full-time Canadian university teachers. Of these, women comprise 65.9% of full-time university teachers in the Health, Parks, Recreation and Fitness, but only 15.5% in Architecture, Engineering and Related Technologies, and 20.6% of Mathematics, Computer and Information Sciences.
This table reports average salaries for full-time university teachers by subject taught, sex, and rank.
Women comprise a large majority of librarians working in Canadian postsecondary institutions, across all age groups. Yet male librarians, across almost all age groups, earn more than their female counterparts. Among those institutions that reported age-based salary data for 2012-2013, women accounted for 73.3% of all librarians and earned an average salary of $90,785, while men earned an average salary of $92,709.
Across all institutions reporting salary data for academic and professional librarians to CAUT, the earnings gap between men and women increased over 2012-2013 to 2013-2014. Average male librarian salaries grew by 2.4% year over year, to $96,283, while average female salaries only grew by 1.1%, to $92,043.
Over 2012-2013 to 2013-2014, average librarian salaries grew in every region across Canada except in the Atlantic, where they declined slightly (-0.5%), most likely an effect of turnover and the aging-out of the workforce in that year. The highest rate of growth (+2.6%) was in Western Canada.
Average salaries for librarians vary significantly across the country in 2012-2013, ranging from a low of $53,372 at the Atlantic School of Theology to a high of $123,709 at the University of Lethbridge.
2.12 Labour Force Estimates of University Professors, College and Other Vocational Instructors, and All Occupations
The proportion of university professors reporting permanent full-time employment dropped from 74.9% in 2002 to 69.1% in 2014. The proportion of college and other vocational instructors also dropped somewhat over this period, ending at 62.8% in 2014. By way of comparison, the average for all occupations was 74.2% in 2002 and 73.6% in 2014.
2.13 Average Salaries of University Professors, College and Other Vocational Instructors, and All Occupations ($ 2014)
In constant dollar terms, average salaries of permanent full-time university professors rose by about $12,000 over 2002-2014, from $86,836 to $98,521. Conversely, average annualized salaries of temporary full-time university professors rose by just about $2,000 (to $63,844). Salaries of permanent and temporary full-time college instructors rose by about $5,000 (to $68,513) and $4,000 (to $59,667) respectively. Across all occupations, average salaries grew by around $5,000 for permanent full-time workers (to $54,148) and around $6,000 for temporary full-time workers (to $43,638).
2.14 Average Salaries of Full-time Permanent Women University Professors, College and Other Vocational Instructors, and All Occupations
Since 1998, the salary gap between men and women has closed somewhat for most occupations. Among permanent full-time workers across all occupations, women now earn 82.2 cents for every dollar earned by men (up from 76.8), or $48,440. The salary gap closed significantly for permanent full-time college instructors, where women went from earning 84.9 cents in 1998 on the dollar to 93.6 cents today (or $66,246). Conversely, the gap has been slower to close among the permanent full-time professoriate, with women are now earning 86.4 cents on the dollar paid to a man (or $90,123) compared to 83.3 cents in 1998.
This table reports average salaries for full-time university teachers in the United States by rank and type of institution.
Canada ranks eleventh of all OECD countries in the proportion of female university teachers, and fifth among college teachers.
This table reports salary minima and maxima by institution and rank for full-time university teachers in Canada.
Between 2001 and 2014, the number of full-time university teachers in Canada increased by 45%. In 2014 there were 42,500 full-time university teachers employed in Canada.
31.1% of academic librarians in 2013-2014 were aged 55 or older. Conversely, 12.8% of academic librarians were aged 35 or younger.
While making up the vast majority of librarians overall, female academic librarians also tend to considerably younger than that of male academic librarians, with 28.5 percent of all female librarians being under 40 compared to only 21.2 percent of male librarians in 2013-2014.
Average salaries of academic librarians increase steadily by age. In 2013-2014, average salaries increased from $73,770 for male librarians aged 30-34 up to $112,376 for male librarians aged 65+, and from $69,265 to $112,960 for female librarians.
While for many years the earnings gap between between academic librarians and university professors remained relatively constant, the gap has grown somewhat over the past few years. Academic librarians earned, on average, 74.8% of full-time university professors’ salaries in 2011-2012. This proportion declined to 73.2% in 2012, and declined further to 72.5% by 2013-2014.
The representation of women among full-time, permanent university teachers increased steadily over 2002 to 2015, growing from 32.9% to 44.8% over the period. In 2016, this proportion dropped to 38.2%. The representation of women among full-time, permanent college and other vocational instructors is much more established, at 45.7% in 2002, making up a slight majority in several years (51.5% in 2004, 52.6% in 2008, and 51.7% in 2014), ending the period at 46.7% in 2016. The representation of women in the overall workforce grew slightly from a level of 43.8% in 2002 to 45.8% in 2016.
Conversely, women make up the greater share of the temporary full-time and part-time employed workforce today (60.9% in 2016). This is also true for university teachers (51%) as well as college and other vocational instructors (61.3%).