SSHRC continues to be seriously underfunded when compared to the other Granting Councils, NSERC and CIHR. While 56% of full-time Canadian university teachers teach in the Humanities, Education and Social Science disciplines, SSHRC only received 13.6% of federal granting council funds in 2012-2013.
This table compares the percentage of CFI Awards by province as opposed to the proportion of full-time equivalent Canadian university students enrolled in each province.
As of June 2015, the CFI had granted 8,967 awards for research for a total value of more than $5.3 billion. 62.8% of the value of CFI awards has been given for research in the fields of Natural Sciences and Engineering, followed by 32.2% in Health Sciences. Research in the fields of Arts and Literature, Human and Social Sciences and Multidisciplinary fields have received less than 6% of the value of awards granted to date.
This table compares the percentage of Canada Research Chairs awarded by province with the proportion of full-time equivalent Canadian university students enrolled in each province.
Research and Development in Canada continues to be increasingly conducted in universities and colleges. In 2013, 39.8% of all R&D expenditures in Canada were by Canadian post-secondary education institutions, up from 27.2% in 1998. R&D expenditures in the Business Enterprise sector dropped from 60.2% to 50.5% over the same time period, while the government sector experienced a small decline in R&D expenditures from 12.2% to 9.2%.
In 2013, the top 50 Canadian universities, ranked by their sponsored research income, received more than $6.7 billion in income. This was an increase of 1.1% from 2012.
In 2012-2013 Canadian universities received more than $6.7 billion in Sponsored Research revenue. This represents a decrease of 0.5% from 2011-2012. 47.3% of Sponsored Research revenues were provided by Canadian federal government sources in 2012-2013. In contrast, private funding sources in the form of business donations, grants and contracts comprised 11.7% of the total.
In 2014-2015, Canadian community colleges received more than $70.6 million in research revenue. This represents a decline of 4.0% from 2013-2014.
5.9 Federal Sponsored Research Expenditures by Province as a Share of Provincial Gross Domestic Product
— In 2012-2013 the federal government of Canada invested 0.35% of its GDP in sponsored research, up from 0.24% in 1992-1993.
Federal government funding for SSHRC, NSERC, CIHR, and the Indirect Costs Program declined by 5.6% between 2007-2008 and 2017-2018. The federal government would need to increase granting council budgets by $173 million to restore funding levels to that of 2007-2008.
When higher education R&D expenditures are measured as a percentage of GDP, the results for Canada indicate a much higher level of R&D investment at the post-secondary level than other OECD countries. In 2013, Canadian higher education R&D expenditures were 0.65% of GDP, in contrast to the OECD average of 0.43%. The corresponding figure for the United States was 0.39%.
5.1 Estimates of Research and Development Expenditures in the Higher Education Sector-Federal Government
— Federal government funding for university based research declined from the early 1990s to 1998. Between 2000 and 2005, federal funding increased by more than 30% in constant dollars (an average of 6.1% per year) while between 2006 and 2013 federal funding increased by 5.0%. In 2013, however, federal funding for university research was only 0.6% higher than in 2012.
Success rates for SSHRC Insight Grants (previously called Standard Research Grants) declined from about 43% in 2004-05 to just 23% in 2014-15. SSHRC-funded female researchers have had lower success rates than male researchers until 2013-2014.
The success rates for first-time applicants for NSERC Discovery Grants declined from over 70% in 2001-2002 to just over 50% in 2011-12. Female researchers have had consistently lower success rates than their male counterparts over that period, except for 2011-12.
Open Operating Grant success rates for CIHR researchers declined from just under 30% in 2004-05 to 15% in 2014-15. The lower success rates of female researchers compared to that of male researchers ranged from a 6% difference in 2002-03 to a 1% difference in 2012-2013.
The number of female university teachers awarded a Canada Research Chair has increased slowly over the past decade. In 2016, 19.8% of Tier 1 chairs were held by women, up 8.6% since 2002. 39.0% of Tier 2 chairs were held by women compared to 20.4% in 2002.
As of December 2016, 91.6% of Canada Research Chairs were recruited from within Canada and 3.9% of chair recipients were Canadians who were recruited from outside Canada.