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5. Research


5.1 Federal Granting Council Awards by Province, 2012-2013

SSHRC continues to be seriously underfunded when compared to the other Granting Councils, NSERC and CIHR. While 56% of full-time Canadian university teachers teach in the Humanities, Education and Social Science disciplines, SSHRC only received 13.6% of federal granting council funds in 2012-2013.

5.2 CFI Awards by Province

This table compares the percentage of CFI Awards by province as opposed to the proportion of full-time equivalent Canadian university students enrolled in each province.

5.3 CFI Awards by Province & Research Sector

As of June 2015, the CFI had granted 8,967 awards for research for a total value of more than $5.3 billion. 62.8% of the value of CFI awards has been given for research in the fields of Natural Sciences and Engineering, followed by 32.2% in Health Sciences. Research in the fields of Arts and Literature, Human and Social Sciences and Multidisciplinary fields have received less than 6% of the value of awards granted to date.

5.4 CRC Allocations by Province, 2000-2015

This table compares the percentage of Canada Research Chairs awarded by province with the proportion of full-time equivalent Canadian university students enrolled in each province.

5.5 Total Research and Development Expenditures by Sector

Research and Development in Canada continues to be increasingly conducted in universities and colleges. In 2013, 39.8% of all R&D expenditures in Canada were by Canadian post-secondary education institutions, up from 27.2% in 1998. R&D expenditures in the Business Enterprise sector dropped from 60.2% to 50.5% over the same time period, while the government sector experienced a small decline in R&D expenditures from 12.2% to 9.2%.

5.6 University Research Income

In 2013, the top 50 Canadian universities, ranked by their sponsored research income, received more than $6.7 billion in income. This was an increase of 1.1% from 2012.

5.7 Funding for Research in Universities by Source and Province, 2012-2013

In 2012-2013 Canadian universities received more than $6.7 billion in Sponsored Research revenue. This represents a decrease of 0.5% from 2011-2012. 47.3% of Sponsored Research revenues were provided by Canadian federal government sources in 2012-2013. In contrast, private funding sources in the form of business donations, grants and contracts comprised 11.7% of the total.

5.8 Funding for Research in Community Colleges by Source and Province, 2014-2015

In 2014-2015, Canadian community colleges received more than $70.6 million in research revenue. This represents a decline of 4.0% from 2013-2014.

5.9 Federal Sponsored Research Expenditures by Province as a Share of Provincial Gross Domestic Product

— In 2012-2013 the federal government of Canada invested 0.35% of its GDP in sponsored research, up from 0.24% in 1992-1993.

5.10 Federal Sponsored Research Expenditures

Federal government funding for SSHRC, NSERC, CIHR, and the Indirect Costs Program declined by 5.6% between 2007-2008 and 2017-2018. The federal government would need to increase granting council budgets by $173 million to restore funding levels to that of 2007-2008.

5.11 Total Expenditures on R&D, 2013, Selected OECD Countries

When higher education R&D expenditures are measured as a percentage of GDP, the results for Canada indicate a much higher level of R&D investment at the post-secondary level than other OECD countries. In 2013, Canadian higher education R&D expenditures were 0.65% of GDP, in contrast to the OECD average of 0.43%. The corresponding figure for the United States was 0.39%.


5.1 Estimates of Research and Development Expenditures in the Higher Education Sector-Federal Government

— Federal government funding for university based research declined from the early 1990s to 1998. Between 2000 and 2005, federal funding increased by more than 30% in constant dollars (an average of 6.1% per year) while between 2006 and 2013 federal funding increased by 5.0%. In 2013, however, federal funding for university research was only 0.6% higher than in 2012.

5.2 Success Rates for SSHRC Grants by Sex

Success rates for SSHRC Insight Grants (previously called Standard Research Grants) declined from about 43% in 2004-05 to just 23% in 2014-15, but rose to 42% in 2017-2018. SSHRC-funded female researchers have had lower success rates than male researchers until 2013-2014.

5.3 Success Rates for NSERC Discovery Grants by Sex (New Applicants Only)

The success rates for first-time applicants for NSERC Discovery Grants declined from over 70% in 2001-2002 to just over 50% in 2011-12. Female researchers have had consistently lower success rates than their male counterparts over that period, except for 2011-12.

5.4 Success Rates for CIHR Operating Grants by Sex

Open Operating Grant success rates for CIHR researchers declined from just under 30% in 2004-05 to 15% in 2014-15. The lower success rates of female researchers compared to that of male researchers ranged from a 6% difference in 2002-03 to a 1% difference in 2012-2013.

5.5 Distribution of Allocated Canada Research Chairs by Tier and Sex (Up to December 2016)

The number of female university teachers awarded a Canada Research Chair has increased slowly over the past decade. In 2016, 19.8% of Tier 1 chairs were held by women, up 8.6% since 2002. 39.0% of Tier 2 chairs were held by women compared to 20.4% in 2002.

5.6 Recruitment of Canada Research Chairs from Within and Outside Canada (Up to December 2016)

As of December 2016, 91.6% of Canada Research Chairs were recruited from within Canada and 3.9% of chair recipients were Canadians who were recruited from outside Canada.